Mechanized production of the hottest rice high-yie

2022-08-09
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Experimental study on the effect of high-yield cultivation fertilizer ratio and different machine spacing on Rice Yield in mechanized production of rice

Yin Guoqing (Senior Engineer of Taihe County Agricultural Bureau, Jiangxi Province)

Jiang Daju (senior agronomist of Taihe County Agricultural Bureau, Jiangxi Province)

Abstract: through the experiment on the effect of high-yield cultivation fertilizer ratio and different machine spacing on Rice Yield in mechanized production of paddy rice, Explore the best fertilization level and machine spacing of the current material experiment machine, so as to provide technical support for the mechanized production of high-yield and high-efficiency rice in hilly areas

key words: Mechanized fertilizer row spacing

fertilizer is the basic element of rice growth. According to the soil fertility, promoting balanced fertilization is an important link of mechanized high-yield cultivation of rice. Rice machine transplanting technology has the advantages of saving labor, saving time and increasing efficiency. It is the main technology of agricultural production. At present, the row spacing specification of rice transplanter is 9 inches. Farmers generally believe that the row spacing of planting and transplanting is too wide, which is questionable. According to the requirements of the research and demonstration project of small agricultural machinery technology in Hilly and mountainous areas planned by the Ministry of agriculture, under the specific guidance of Nanjing Institute of agricultural mechanization and Jiangxi Institute of agricultural engineering, Taihe County Bureau of Agriculture organized professionals to carry out the experiment of the effect of the high-yield planting and cultivation fertilizer ratio of mechanized production of early rice and the row spacing of the co mixer without adding glass fiber and inorganic filler on rice yield, To explore the best fertilization level and machine spacing under the condition of mechanized production, so as to provide technical support for the mechanized production of high-yield and high-efficiency rice in hilly areas. Taihe County is located in the hilly area of central and southern Jiangxi and in the hinterland of the Jitai basin. The average annual sunshine is 1756.4 hours, the temperature is 18.6 degrees, the frost free period is 281 days, and the rainfall is 1726 mm. It has sufficient light energy, four distinct seasons, abundant heat, and abundant rainfall. It belongs to a typical subtropical humid monsoon climate. Agricultural production is dominated by the planting of double cropping rice, and the comprehensive mechanization level of rice cultivation and harvest has reached 61%. It is a county determined by the Ministry of agriculture to promote the agricultural mechanization of an additional 100 billion jin of grain. The county has the organizational, technical and geographical conditions to carry out the experiment

1. Materials and methods

1.1 selection of the test field

the test field is selected in wangyaozhu rice field, a farmer in group 11, Zhongfang village, Luoxi Town, Taihe County. The farmer has a high school education, has rich practical experience in agricultural production and agricultural machinery skills, is keen to accept new knowledge of agricultural technology, is hardworking and able to work, and now contracts and leases more than 160 mu of paddy field. The soil of the test field is sandy loam. After determination, the basic fertility composition of soil is organic matter 29.3g/kg, total ammonia 1.44g/kg, alkali hydrolyzed ammonia 147.00mg/kg, available phosphorus 94mg/kg, available potassium 19.80mg/kg, water 2.3%, medium and high fertility, uniform fertility. The experimental field has a double cropping paddy field area that represents the typical southern hilly characteristics. The transportation of this field is relatively convenient, the basic conditions of farmland are good, and the radiation range can reach more than 1000 mu

1.2 test materials

1.2.1 test fertilizer 45% Guixi produces compound fertilizer (), Jiuhua produces urea (N46%), Canada produces potassium chloride (k2060%), and Ganhua produces calcium superphosphate (p205 12%)

1.2.2 the two rice varieties selected last year that meet the characteristics of mechanized production are zhongjiazao 17 and Xiannong 37

1.3 test method

1.3.1 agricultural machinery operation. Heyuan brand 4-row step-by-step rice transplanter is used for machine planting, Jiangxi walking tractor factory ganfa dongfeng-151 walking tractor is used for machine farming, the depth of machine farming is cm, and Hunan Longzhou 4lz-1.8 combine harvester is used for machine harvesting

1.3.2 seedling raising methods. The machine inserted hard disk is used to fertilize the seedlings in the field, and the seedlings are managed according to the thin dew wetting method. All agricultural operations are completed on the same day

2. Experimental process

2.1 experimental treatment

according to different machine row spacing and different fertilizer ratio, a total of three hilly fields were selected as experimental fields, and each hilly field was also planted with two early rice varieties: zhongjiazao 17 and Xiannong 37

2.1.1 see Table 1 for different machine inserted row spacing (a). A1 specification is machine inserted row spacing of 30cm (9-inch row spacing) and 11.7cm (plant spacing). A2 specification is machine inserted row spacing of 26.4cm (8-inch row spacing) and 11.7cm (plant spacing)

2.1.2 see Table 1 for different fertilizer ratios (b) and fertilization methods.

b1 is a high-yield field, with pure ammonia 12kg/mu, P20 6kg/mu, K20 12kg/mu, and the ratio of ammonia, phosphorus and potassium is 1:0.5:1

b2 is medium fertilizer field, pure ammonia 10kg/mu, P20 5kg/mu, K20 10kg/mu, and the ratio of ammonia, phosphorus and potassium is 1:0.5:1

b3 is low fertility field, pure ammonia 8kg/mu, P20 4kg/mu, K20 8kg/mu, and the ratio of ammonia, phosphorus and potassium is 1:0.5:1

the area of Sanqiu experimental field is 1.6 mu for High-Yield (B1), 2 mu for medium-yield (B2) and 1.8 mu for low-yield (B3). In addition, a demonstration field with an area of 18 Mu is set next to the experimental field, which is planted according to the requirements of medium fat field

Figure 1 Schematic diagram of experimental treatment field

high fertility field (B1)

2.2.1 machine planting: Sowing on March 20, machine planting on April 20, and the seedling age is 30 days

2.2.2 time and dosage of pest control. A total of three times of application, the first time on May 10 to control drillworm, the method of application is to use 20% Kang Kuan 10ml + farmer brother 40ml, mixed with water 30 kg spray

the second time is on June 16 to prevent and control ear neck blast, sheath blight, leaf roller, rice planthopper, drill worm, etc. the medication method is to use 20% kangkuan 10ml + 75% Tricyclazole 40g + 30% Aimiao 15ml + quike 10g mixed with 90 Jin of water spray

the third time was on July 5 to control rice planthoppers, etc. the medication method was to use 20 grams of 25% Pymetrozine per mu and 90 kilograms of water spray

2.2.3 others. Other field management measures in the experimental area are the same as farmers' customary methods. Early rice harvest is on July 20

3. Test and determination items and methods

3.1 seedling quality

before machine transplanting, 50 representative seedlings of two varieties are selected. What should be paid attention to when measuring plant height, leaf age and root? Plastic tensile testing machine generally tests the tensile strength and modulus of plastic, the fresh weight of 100 seedlings, and determines the seeding uniformity of seedbed. The results are shown in Table 2

Table 2 investigation of seedlings and quality of different varieties

3.2 quality of machine transplanting seedlings

investigate the quality of machine transplanting of different seedlings, select 4 rows of 10 plants in each plot, investigate the planting depth, the number of plants per hole, the rate of injured seedlings, the rate of floating seedlings, the rate of missing seedlings, and take the average value. The results are shown in Table 3

table III investigation on the quality of machine transplanting seedlings of different varieties

3.3 dynamics of stems and tillers

seven days after machine transplanting, each treatment fixed 20 holes to investigate the basic seedlings, and then every seven days to investigate the dynamics of stems and tillers. A total of seven investigations were conducted to take the average value. The results are shown in table IV

Table 4 tillering dynamic investigation

3.4 dry matter mass

on July 20, 4 representative rice plants were taken from each treatment to calculate the aboveground dry matter mass. The results are shown in Table 5

table 5 dry matter quality of early rice

3.5 yield and yield composition

investigate the number of tillers in 20 holes per treatment, calculate the number of effective ears, and sample 3 holes to determine the number of grains per ear, seed setting rate and 1000 grain weight; The rice harvest center in each community measured the yield of 4 ㎡, threshed separately to measure the moisture content of dry rice, and then calculated the rice yield with the equivalent moisture content of 14%. The results are shown in Table 6

table 6 yield composition of different machine row spacing and fertilizer ratio

4.1 effect of different machine row spacing on rice yield at the same fertilization level

it can be seen from table 6 that the yield of each treatment plot with the same fertilization level and different machine spacing is different. In the same field, Xiannong 37 row spacing 8 avoids the subsequent loss caused by unqualified parts. The output of inch is significantly higher than that of 9 inch. For example, the yield per mu of zhongfeitian and Xiannong 37 is 467.42kg with a row spacing of 8 inches and 447.86kg with a row spacing of 9 inches. The yield per mu of 8 inches is 19.56kg higher than that of 9 inches, and the yield increase effect is obvious. The analysis shows that in the whole growth process of rice, the higher the machine planting density is, the more nutrients are required, and the hybrid rice has obvious advantages, good tillering, more effective panicles, more panicles and grains, high seed setting rate, and naturally high yield. In the same field, the yield of Jiazao 17 with a row spacing of 8 inches is lower than that of 9 inches. The main reasons can be seen from table 3: the 8-inch transplanter of early rice has a slightly deeper planting depth, and the number of plants per hole is significantly less than 9 inches, resulting in less effective panicles, thus affecting the yield

4.2 different fertilization levels will directly affect the yield of rice

it can be seen from table 6 that the actual yield of medium fertilizer field is the highest, followed by high fertilizer area, followed by low fertilizer field; The main reason is that the fertility of the test field is medium and superior, and the fertility is uniform, that is, there is the residual fertilizer of the previous crop and the nutrients of the soil itself in the soil, which leads to high fertility fields and excess fertilizer from the surface. Due to the low tillering node position, long tillering period, many invalid tillers, excessive medium-term population, low panicle forming rate of stems and tillers, reduced panicles per mu, and reduced yield, the fertilizer amount is corrected to determine the optimal fertilizer amount, so that the fertilizer efficiency is synchronized with the optimal tillering period, Promote effective tillering, ensure the formation of appropriate panicles, control ineffective tillers, help to form large panicles, improve fertilizer utilization, and achieve high yield and efficiency

4.3 mechanized production of early rice the effect of high-yield cultivation of different varieties on yield

from table 6 the yield of different varieties can be seen: at the same fertilization level, the yield of high, medium and low fertilizer fields, zhongjiazao 17 is higher than Xiannong 37; The output of zhongjiazao 17 is also significantly higher than that of Xiannong 37 with different machine inserted row spacing of 9 inches and 8 inches. Therefore, zhongjiazao 17 is the most suitable early rice variety for mechanized high-yield cultivation of hilly rice. This variety has good seedling quality and high yield

5. Conclusion

through the experimental study on the effect of different fertilization levels, different machine row spacing and field trials of different varieties on the yield of early rice, it is shown that in rice production, it is necessary to first understand and master the nutrient content, fertilizer demand and fertilizer supply performance of soil, and determine the machine row spacing and fertilization level according to local conditions. It is unrealistic to unilaterally emphasize high fertility and dense planting. The experiment showed that medium fertilizer and 8-inch row spacing were the more suitable fertilization level and machine cutting row spacing in the mechanized production of high-yield and high-efficiency rice in the hilly areas of South China; At the same time, early rice zhongjiazao 17 is a more suitable early rice variety for mechanized planting, which can be widely promoted in our county

(source: Agricultural Machinery Bureau of Taihe County, Jiangxi Province)

source: agricultural mechanization information in China

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